石油学报(石油加工) ›› 2012, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 517-524.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-8719.2012.03.027

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

委内瑞拉超重原油和加拿大油砂沥青加工利用现状

李振宇,乔明,任文坡   

  1. 中国石油 石油化工研究院, 北京 100195
  • 收稿日期:2012-03-30 修回日期:2012-04-13 出版日期:2012-06-25 发布日期:2012-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 李振宇,男,高级工程师,从事石油化工发展战略研究;E-mai:lizhenyu@petrochina.com.cn E-mail:lizhenyu@petrochina.com.cn

Current Development of Venezuela Extra Heavy Crude and Canadian Oil Sands Processing

LI Zhenyu, QIAO Ming, REN Wenpo   

  1. PetroChina Petrochemical Research Institute, CNPC, Beijing 100195, China
  • Received:2012-03-30 Revised:2012-04-13 Online:2012-06-25 Published:2012-06-25

摘要: 委内瑞拉超重原油和加拿大油砂沥青是世界上最重要的两种非常规石油资源,但这两种非常规原油都是高比重、高黏度、高硫、高残炭、高金属、高沥青质的劣质原油,常规炼厂直接加工这两种原料会出现一系列问题。目前这两种非常规原油主要在其本国的改质工厂进行改质,改质得到的合成原油可作为炼厂原料进一步加工生产运输燃料和其他石油产品。委内瑞拉现有四座超重原油改质工厂,其中三座改质工厂生产重质高硫合成原油,另外一座改质工厂生产高质量的轻质低硫合成原油,四座改质工厂采用的核心改质工艺都是焦化。加拿大现有6座主要的油砂沥青改质工厂,改质途径主要是焦化和/或加氢,生产的合成原油性质也有所差别。非常规石油资源是未来我国炼厂原料重要的接替资源,我国石油公司必须加快相关领域关键技术的研发和推广应用,以技术提升核心竞争力,拓展国际能源合作的机遇。

关键词: 委内瑞拉超重原油, 加拿大油砂沥青, 改质, 合成原油

Abstract: Venezuela extra heavy crude and Canadian oil sands are two main kinds of unconventional crude. They can’t be directly processed in conventional refineries due to their special properties of low API, high viscosity, high sulfur, high carbon residue, high metal and high asphaltene content. At present, the two unconventional crudes are handled mainly in upgrading facilities near production sites, producing synthetic crude suitable for conventional refineries to produce transportation fuels and other oil products. There are currently four upgrading facilities in Venezuela for extra heavy crude. Three of them are designed to produce heavy, high sulfur synthetic crude and the other can provide light, low sulfur synthetic crude. Coking is chosen by all of the four plants as the main upgrading technology. Six major upgrading facilities are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada. Synthetic crude with different properties is produced there using coking and/or hydrocracking technologies. The two unconventional crudes are seen as important feedstock resources of refineries in future. Chinese oil companies should pay more attention to the development and application of our own upgrading technologies, which will strengthen our competitiveness and lead to cooperation opportunities.

Key words: Venezuela extra heavy crude, Canadian oil sands and bitumen, upgrading, synthetic crude